Lower Back Pain Treatment Options

What is back pain?

Lower back pain is extremely common, especially in adults between the ages of 30 and 50Trusted Source, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Discomfort in the lower back can be chronic or ongoing. It can also be a sudden and brief condition known as acute pain.

Causes of lower back pain include:

  • muscle pulls and spasms
  • nerve irritation
  • spinal abnormalities, such as a slipped disc or spinal stenosis

Treatment options for lower back pain range widely according to the cause of the condition. Read on to learn more.


Rest your lower back to counter the pain. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, this may simply mean reducing your level of activity for a couple of days.

Bed rest is no longer recommended for the treatment of low back pain except for short periods of time.

Lying on your back with a pillow under your knees helps keep your back in a neutral position.

You might also find some relief by lying on the floor with your knees bent at a 90-degree angle and propped on a chair.

However, don’t rest for too long. Many cases of lower back pain resolve themselves within a couple of days.

Longer periods of inactivity can actually cause your muscles to weaken.

Heat or ice

Treat lower back pain with a hot or cold compress. According to the NINDS, evidence suggests that using heat and ice packs can increase your mobility and reduce pain.

Place a bag of ice or frozen vegetables on the tender areas of your lower back to reduce inflammation. Be sure to wrap the ice pack in a towel to protect your skin from frostbite. You can safely use ice several times daily for 20 minutes or so at a time.

Switch to heat after a couple of days of cold treatment in the form of a heating pad or warm bath. The warmth will loosen the tight muscles that are causing your pain.

Turn off the heating pad before falling asleep to reduce the risk of burns.

OTC pain relievers

Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers are a noninvasive treatment option for back pain. Medications such as naproxen, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen are most effective in reducing pain and swelling associated with muscle-related lower back pain.

However, OTC medication is less likely to alleviate symptoms that stem from nerve compression or disc problems. Call your doctor if your back doesn’t feel better after a few days of rest, hot or cold compresses, and OTC analgesics.

Prescription medications

Your doctor might prescribe stronger medications to relieve chronic lower back pain that isn’t helped by OTC options.

Antidepressants, narcotics such as codeine, and anticonvulsant drugs may be used to treat lower back pain.

Nerve pain such as sciatica, which results from a bulging disc in the lower back, can be difficult to treat with oral medications. For this type of discomfort, corticosteroids and anesthetic medications may be injected to reduce inflammation.

Corticosteroids may be injected intramuscularly, taken orally, or injected under fluoroscopy (as epidural steroid injection-ESI). Once the swelling of the nerve decreases, you’ll usually find some relief.


Exercise may be the last thing on your mind when your back hurts. However, physical activity is an effective way to recover more quickly from your aches and pains.

Core exercises — such as pelvic tilts and bridges — strengthen the muscles in your abdomen and back that support your spine. The stronger these muscles become, the less likely you are to be affected by lower back pain.

Studies from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) report that people who practiced adapted yoga poses experienced less pain and disability, and it improved their mood after six months.

Swimming and walking are also great ways to keep your back healthy as well as keep a healthy weight. Excess weight plays a role in lower back pain because it puts more pressure on your joints.


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